Atmosphere module

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) defines the atmosphere as an hypotetical vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature, pressure and density which by international agreement and for historical reasons, is roughly representative of year-round, midlatitude conditions.

Famous atmospheric models

During the last years different astmospheric models have been developed. The most complex ones take into account variables such us gravity decay with distance or even solar flux on its minimum and maximum mean values along year.

Even it is possible to find atmospheric models not only for the Earth but also for other Solar System planets such us Venus or Mars.

Following collection of models was directly taken from AIAA’s paper: Guide to Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models which should be checked if more information on the models is desired.

Global Models

  • COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) (Range: 130 to 2000 km), 1986

  • A New Reference Middle Atmosphere Program Model Atmosphere (Range: 20 to 80 km),1985

  • NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM-99) (Range: 0 to 2,500 km), 1999

  • U.S. Standard Atmosphere (Range: –5 to 700km), 1962

  • U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements (Range: 0 to 1,000 km), 1966

  • U.S. Standard Atmosphere (Range: -5 to 1,000 km), 1976

Regional Models

  • Proposed International Tropical Reference Atmosphere (Range: -5 to 1,000 km), 1987 (India)

  • Reference Atmosphere for Indian Equatorial Zone from Surface to 80 km, 1985 (India)

  • Reference Model of the Middle Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (Range: 25 to 80 km), 1987 (Soviet Union)

Middle Atmosphere Models

  • AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (Range: 0 to 120 km), 1986

  • AFGL Extreme Envelopes of Climate Elements up to 80 km, 1973

  • AFGL Profiles of Temperature and Density Based on 1- and 10-Percent

  • Extremes in the Stratosphere and Troposphere (Range: 0 to 80 km), 1984

  • A Global Reference Atmosphere from 18 to 80 km, 1985

  • Extensions to the CIRA Reference Models for Middle Atmosphere Ozone (Range: 25 to 90 km), 1993

  • Update to the Stratospheric Nitric Acid Reference Atmosphere (Range: 10 to 50 km), 1998

Thermosphere Models

  • Earth’s Upper Atmosphere Density Model for Ballistics Support of Flight of Artificial Satellites (Range: 0 to 1,500 km), 1985

  • Jacchia J70 Static Models of the Thermosphere and Exosphere with Empirical Temperature Profiles (Range: 90 to 2,500 km, 1970

  • Jacchia J71 Static Models of the Thermosphere and Exosphere with Empirical Temperature Profiles (Range: 90 to 2,500 km), 1971

  • Jacchia J77 Thermospheric Temperature, Density, and Composition: New Models (Range: 90 to 2,500 km), 1977

  • Model of Atmospheric Structure, 70 to 130 km, 1987

  • NRLMSISE-00 Thermospheric Model (Range: 85 to 2,000 km), 2000

  • U.S. Air Force High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (Range: 90 to 5,000 km), 2002

  • NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) Model-Version 2.0 (Range: 90 to 2,500 km), 2002

Range Models

  • Range Reference Atmospheres (RRA) (Range: 0 to 70 km), 2001

  • A Reference Atmosphere for Edwards AFB, California, Annual (Range: 706 m to 90 km), 1975

  • Hot and Cold Reference Atmospheres for Edwards AFB, California, Annual (Range: 706 m to 90 km), 1975

  • Hot and Cold Reference Atmospheres for Kennedy Space Center, Florida, Annual (Range: 0 to 90 km), 1971

  • A Reference Atmosphere for Patrick AFB, Florida, Annual (Range: 0 to 700 km), 1963

  • A Reference Atmosphere for Vandenberg AFB, California, Annual (Range: 0 to 90 km), 1971

  • Hot and Cold Reference Atmospheres for Vandenberg AFB California, Annual (Range: 0 to 90 km), 1973

Planetary Models

  • NASA/MSFC Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) (Range: 0 to 1,000 km), 2001

  • NASA/MSFC Neptune Global Reference Atmosphere Model (Neptune-GRAM) (Range: 0 to 4,000 km), 2003

  • NASA/MSFC Titan Global Reference Atmosphere Model (Titan-GRAM) (Range: 0 to 2,200 km), 2003

  • The Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) – Structure and Composition, Surface to 3500 km (Range: 0 to 3,500 km), 1986

Implemented in poliastro

Following models are Implemented in poliastro: